Mining Moratorium

Professor of Environmental Management School of Business and Management (SBM) Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Surna Tjahja Djajadiningrat, expressed discourse on temporary suspension of mining activities. Opinions published in Kompas Daily Friday, February 5, 2010.

Mining Moratorium
By Surna Tjahja Djajadiningrat
The main report Kompas on Monday, January 25, 2010, is the head line news that waited by the people who believe that the 1945 Constitution is the bedrock of our nationhood.
Chapter XIV of the 1945 Constitution, Social Welfare Article 33 Paragraph (1) and (3) mandates that: “The branches of production that are important to the state and who dominate the life of the people controlled by the state” and “The earth and water and natural resources contained therein shall be controlled by the state and used for as much as possible for the prosperity of the people “.
Mining activities are rampant in many areas of the island of Borneo that ignores good practice mining is neglect of the phenomenon of the 1945 Constitution.
Borneo Island is in the process of desertification, as a result of the greed of the present generation to the exclusion of future generations the opportunity to use it.
The data show that the regents at the colliery area troop issue new mining permits, especially the small scale. Varies of mining coal areas, ranging from only a dozen hectares to more than three thousand hectares.
Document formalities
In KP licenses issued regent / mayor coordinates are listed KP area and forwarded to the Minister of Mines and Energy and Mineral Resources and the governor. However, most likely a copy of the license is not delivered KP as it should. KP permission begins with issuance of SKIP (consent decree review) the field, then I and exploration permits, if the time is not enough, there II exploration permits, exploitation permits, transport permits, and license sales. Before the permit is signed KP regent / mayor applicant is no obligation to make environmental impact assessment (EIA).
However, EIA is so important to control the environmental impact is only a formality documents. Almost no experts and officials in time for environmental agencies to actually research and conduct field studies and, ironically, there are cases where the applicant KP with lobbying expertise and affinity with the region able to dictate to the head official at the environment agency to speed up the process EIA documents.
Prior to the issuance process is signed KP regent / mayor, agencies should determine the status of mining coal mining area. However, in reality, a lot happened clutter or overlap, such as by fellow KP, PKP2B overlap with, protected forests, conservation areas, and so forth.
Most coal exploitation in KP land not held by a work plan, exploitation, reclamation and reforestation.
The soil excavated and disposed of in some places, such as rivers and water catchment areas, thus causing various pollution problems and environmental damage.
The process of the destruction of Borneo Island is not a natural phenomenon, but human activity, especially by people who trusted people to manage their interests.
This incident is a result of regional autonomy euphoria ignore good governance (good governance is) and clean government (clean governance) that caused the failure of the policy (Policy failure) and failure of institutional (institutional failure).
The only way
This can not be ignored or even justified by us who still believe in the 1945 Constitution as the foundation of nationhood.
There’s no other way except to fundamental reforms in policy, implementation, and management of mining in Indonesia.
Fundamental reform should start from the political will of our beloved leaders.
There is no other way to dare to do a moratorium (temporary suspension) mining activities, particularly coal mining KP status, while repairing the entire policy, implementation of licensing, supervision and control of mining personnel and mining forcing mining practice of good conduct.
Many are pessimistic and assume that the moratorium on mining activities are the ideals that are difficult and impossible to be achieved by the government in a climate when the bureaucracy is still ignore good governance and clean government.
However, the moratorium on mining while to fix aspects of the policy, licensing, implementation and control is the only way to make natural resources we have can be utilized for the present generation without undermining future generations to be able to use it, and make not only the 1945 document written (dead letter law) but really became the foundation of our state and nation.
Surna Tjahja Djajadiningrat
Former Director General of General Mining and Professor of Environmental Management School of Business and Management ITB**

nayasbmProfessor of Environmental Management School of Business and Management (SBM) Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Surna Tjahja Djajadiningrat, expressed discourse on temporary suspension of mining activities. Opinions published in Kompas Daily Friday, February 5, 2010.

Mining Moratorium
By Surna Tjahja Djajadiningrat

The main report Kompas on Monday, January 25, 2010, is the head line news that waited by the people who believe that the 1945 Constitution is the bedrock of our nationhood.

Chapter XIV of the 1945 Constitution, Social Welfare Article 33 Paragraph (1) and (3) mandates that: “The branches of production that are important to the state and who dominate the life of the people controlled by the state” and “The earth and water and natural resources contained therein shall be controlled by the state and used for as much as possible for the prosperity of the people “.

Mining activities are rampant in many areas of the island of Borneo that ignores good practice mining is neglect of the phenomenon of the 1945 Constitution.

Borneo Island is in the process of desertification, as a result of the greed of the present generation to the exclusion of future generations the opportunity to use it.

The data show that the regents at the colliery area troop issue new mining permits, especially the small scale. Varies of mining coal areas, ranging from only a dozen hectares to more than three thousand hectares.

Document formalities

In KP licenses issued regent / mayor coordinates are listed KP area and forwarded to the Minister of Mines and Energy and Mineral Resources and the governor. However, most likely a copy of the license is not delivered KP as it should. KP permission begins with issuance of SKIP (consent decree review) the field, then I and exploration permits, if the time is not enough, there II exploration permits, exploitation permits, transport permits, and license sales. Before the permit is signed KP regent / mayor applicant is no obligation to make environmental impact assessment (EIA).

However, EIA is so important to control the environmental impact is only a formality documents. Almost no experts and officials in time for environmental agencies to actually research and conduct field studies and, ironically, there are cases where the applicant KP with lobbying expertise and affinity with the region able to dictate to the head official at the environment agency to speed up the process EIA documents.

Prior to the issuance process is signed KP regent / mayor, agencies should determine the status of mining coal mining area. However, in reality, a lot happened clutter or overlap, such as by fellow KP, PKP2B overlap with, protected forests, conservation areas, and so forth.

Most coal exploitation in KP land not held by a work plan, exploitation, reclamation and reforestation.

The soil excavated and disposed of in some places, such as rivers and water catchment areas, thus causing various pollution problems and environmental damage.

The process of the destruction of Borneo Island is not a natural phenomenon, but human activity, especially by people who trusted people to manage their interests.

This incident is a result of regional autonomy euphoria ignore good governance (good governance is) and clean government (clean governance) that caused the failure of the policy (Policy failure) and failure of institutional (institutional failure).

The only way

This can not be ignored or even justified by us who still believe in the 1945 Constitution as the foundation of nationhood.

There’s no other way except to fundamental reforms in policy, implementation, and management of mining in Indonesia.

Fundamental reform should start from the political will of our beloved leaders.

There is no other way to dare to do a moratorium (temporary suspension) mining activities, particularly coal mining KP status, while repairing the entire policy, implementation of licensing, supervision and control of mining personnel and mining forcing mining practice of good conduct.

Many are pessimistic and assume that the moratorium on mining activities are the ideals that are difficult and impossible to be achieved by the government in a climate when the bureaucracy is still ignore good governance and clean government.

However, the moratorium on mining while to fix aspects of the policy, licensing, implementation and control is the only way to make natural resources we have can be utilized for the present generation without undermining future generations to be able to use it, and make not only the 1945 document written (dead letter law) but really became the foundation of our state and nation.

Surna Tjahja Djajadiningrat
Former Director General of General Mining and Professor of Environmental Management School of Business and Management ITB**Oleh Surna Tjahja Djajadiningrat

nayasbmLaporan utama Kompas hari Senin, tanggal 25 Januari 2010, merupakan berita yang ditunggu oleh masyarakat yang percaya bahwa UUD 1945 adalah landasan kita dalam berbangsa dan bernegara.

UUD 1945 Bab XIV, Kesejahteraan Sosial Pasal 33 Ayat (1) dan (3) mengamanatkan bahwa: ”Cabang-cabang produksi yang penting bagi negara dan yang menguasai hajat hidup orang banyak dikuasai oleh negara” dan ”Bumi dan air dan kekayaan alam yang terkandung di dalamnya dikuasai oleh negara dan digunakan untuk sebesar-besarnya untuk kemakmuran rakyat.

Kegiatan pertambangan yang marak di berbagai wilayah di Pulau Kalimantan yang mengabaikan good mining practice merupakan fenomena pengabaian UUD 1945.

Pulau Kalimantan sedang dalam proses penggurunan, sebagai akibat keserakahan generasi masa kini sehingga mengabaikan kesempatan generasi masa depan untuk memanfaatkannya.

Data menunjukkan bahwa para bupati di daerah tambang batu bara beramai-ramai mengeluarkan izin pertambangan baru, khususnya yang berskala kecil. Kuasa pertambangan (KP) batu bara luasannya bervariasi, mulai dari hanya belasan hektar hingga lebih dari tiga ribu hektar.

Dokumen formalitas
Dalam izin KP yang diterbitkan bupati/wali kota memang dicantumkan titik koordinat areal KP dan ditembuskan ke Menteri Pertambangan dan ESDM dan Gubernur. Namun, kemungkinan besar tembusan dari izin KP tersebut tidak dikirimkan sebagaimana seharusnya. Izin KP diawali dengan penerbitan SKIP (surat keputusan izin peninjauan) lapangan, kemudian izin eksplorasi I dan, bila waktu tidak cukup, ada izin eksplorasi II, izin eksploitasi, izin angkutan, dan izin penjualan. Sebelum izin KP ditandatangani bupati/wali kota memang ada kewajiban pemohon membuat analisis mengenai dampak lingkungan (amdal).

Namun, amdal yang begitu penting untuk mengendalikan dampak lingkungan hanya merupakan dokumen formalitas belaka. Hampir tidak ada tenaga ahli dan waktu bagi pejabat di badan lingkungan hidup untuk benar-benar meneliti dan melakukan kajian lapangan dan, ironisnya, banyak kasus di mana pemohon KP dengan keahlian lobi dan kedekatan dengan kepala daerah mampu mendikte pejabat di badan lingkungan hidup untuk mempercepat proses dokumen amdal.

Sebelum proses penerbitan izin KP ditandatangani bupati/wali kota, seharusnya instansi pertambangan menetapkan status areal penambangan batu bara. Namun, kenyataannya, banyak terjadi kesemrawutan atau tumpang tindih, antara lain dengan sesama KP, tumpang tindih dengan PKP2B, hutan lindung, kawasan konservasi, dan lain sebagainya.

Kebanyakan eksploitasi batu bara di lahan KP tidak dilaksanakan dengan suatu rencana kerja, baik eksploitasi, reklamasi maupun penghijauan.

Digali dan tanah kupasannya dibuang di sejumlah tempat, seperti sungai dan kawasan resapan air, sehingga menimbulkan berbagai permasalahan kerusakan dan pencemaran lingkungan.

Proses kehancuran Pulau Kalimantan bukanlah fenomena alam, tetapi ulah manusia, khususnya manusia yang dipercaya oleh masyarakat untuk mengelola kepentingan mereka.

Kejadian ini merupakan akibat dari euforia otonomi daerah yang mengabaikan good governance (tata kelola yang baik) dan clean government (pemerintahan yang bersih) sehingga menimbulkan kegagalan kebijakan (policy failure) dan kegagalan kelembagaan (institutional failure).

Satu-satunya cara

Karut-marut ini tidak dapat didiamkan atau bahkan dibenarkan oleh kita yang masih percaya pada UUD 1945 sebagai landasan berbangsa dan bernegara.

Tak ada cara lain kecuali melakukan perombakan mendasar pada kebijakan, pelaksanaan, dan pengelolaan pertambangan di Indonesia.

Perombakan mendasar harus dimulai dari kemauan politik pimpinan negara kita tercinta.

Tidak ada cara lain untuk berani melakukan moratorium (penghentian sementara) kegiatan pertambangan, khususnya pertambangan batu bara dengan status KP, sambil memperbaiki seluruh kebijakan, pelaksanaan perizinan, pengawasan, dan pengendalian dari aparatur pertambangan serta memaksa kegiatan pertambangan melaksanakan good mining practice.

Banyak yang pesimistis dan menganggap bahwa moratorium kegiatan pertambangan adalah cita-cita yang sulit digapai dan mustahil dilaksanakan oleh pemerintah di kala iklim birokrasi masih mengabaikan good governance dan clean government.

Akan tetapi, moratorium pertambangan sambil membenahi aspek kebijakan, perizinan, pelaksanaan dan pengendaliannya merupakan satu-satunya cara untuk menjadikan sumber daya alam yang kita miliki dapat dimanfaatkan untuk generasi masa kini tanpa mengabaikan generasi masa depan untuk dapat memanfaatkannya, dan menjadikan UUD 1945 bukan hanya dokumen tertulis (dead letter law), tetapi benar-benar menjadi landasan kita berbangsa dan bernegara.

Surna Tjahja Djajadiningrat
Mantan Dirjen Pertambangan Umum dan Guru Besar Manajemen Lingkungan Sekolah Bisnis dan Manajemen ITB

Opininya dimuat di Harian Kompas Jumat, 5 Februari 2010.